

I do not have the decay constant but, by using the halflife information, I can find it.(Since this is a decay problem, I expect the constant to be negative.If I end up with a positive value, I'll know that I should go back and check my work.) In Its radiation is extremely lowenergy, so the chance of mutation is very low.(Whatever you're being treated for is the greater danger.) The halflife is just long enough for the doctors to have time to take their pictures.), though there is one very demanding woman with strict dietary requirements (one wonders why she even bothers going out to restaurants, but no doubt she enjoys tormenting the serving staff), and another one with a nervous tic.On the way in to the theatre, the audience is offered a choice of labels to indicate their relationship status—red for not available, yellow for might be available, and green for definitely available.


So what we do is we come up with terms that help us get our head around this. So I wrote a decay reaction right here, where you have carbon14. So now you have, after one halflife So let's ignore this. I don't know which half, but half of them will turn into it. And then let's say we go into a time machine and we look back at our sample, and let's say we only have 10 grams of our sample left. And so, like everything in chemistry, and a lot of what we're starting to deal with in physics and quantum mechanics, everything is probabilistic. So one of the neutrons must have turned into a proton and that is what happened. And you might say, oh OK, so maybe let's see, let me make nitrogen magenta, right there so you might say, OK, maybe that half turns into nitrogen. And over 5,740 years, you determine that there's a 50% chance that any one of these carbon atoms will turn into a nitrogen atom. And we could keep going further into the future, and after every halflife, 5,740 years, we will have half of the carbon that we started. Now, if you look at it over a huge number of atoms. But after two more years, how many are we going to have? So this is t equals 3 I'm sorry, this is t equals 4 years. And maybe not carbon12, maybe we're talking about carbon14 or something. And then nothing happens for a long time, a long time, and all of a sudden two more guys decay. And the atomic number defines the carbon, because it has six protons. If they say that it's halflife is 5,740 years, that means that if on day one we start off with 10 grams of pure carbon14, after 5,740 years, half of this will have turned into nitrogen14, by beta decay. What happens over that 5,740 years is that, probabilistically, some of these guys just start turning into nitrogen randomly, at random points. So if we go to another halflife, if we go another halflife from there, I had five grams of carbon14. So now we have seven and a half grams of nitrogen14. This exact atom, you just know that it had a 50% chance of turning into a nitrogen. So with that said, let's go back to the question of how do we know if one of these guys are going to decay in some way. That, you know, maybe this guy will decay this second. Remember, isotopes, if there's carbon, can come in 12, with an atomic mass number of 12, or with 14, or I mean, there's different isotopes of different elements. So the carbon14 version, or this isotope of carbon, let's say we start with 10 grams. Well we said that during a halflife, 5,740 years in the case of carbon14 all different elements have a different halflife, if they're radioactive over 5,740 years there's a 50% and if I just look at any one atom there's a 50% chance it'll decay. Now after another halflife you can ignore all my little, actually let me erase some of this up here. So we'll have even more conversion into nitrogen14. So now we're only left with 2.5 grams of c14. Well we have another two and a half went to nitrogen. So after one halflife, if you're just looking at one atom after 5,740 years, you don't know whether this turned into a nitrogen or not. However, I note that there is no beginning or ending amount given.However, these claims are strongly disputed by Muslim scholars, with Mustafa Shah from the School of Oriental and African Studies in London also telling the paper: 'If anything, the manuscript has consolidated traditional accounts of the Koran's origins.'During this time the Koran was memorised and recited orally but Caliph Abu Bakr, the first leader of the Muslim community after Muhammad's death, ordered the Koranic material to be collected into a book.
